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英文文法「條件句、假設語氣」時態句型大解析!

Wang Cindy 2015 年 09 月 23 日

你永遠搞不懂的英文文法中的條件句和假設語氣要怎麼用嗎?
If I had 還是 If I have?

今天看完這篇,
真正學會駕馭英文假設語氣!

條件句 英文

看一下 Benjamin老師慢條斯理的解釋,馬上學會如何使用 “If I had”!Screen Shot 2015-09-06 at 12.46.40 AM

基本句

先從最基本的句型開始!這種句型用來表達不可能改變的事實:如果前面的「A」發生,後面的「B」也一定會發生。

典型的句子:
If the sun rises, the night is over.
如果太陽出來,夜晚就結束了。

*句子的兩段都是用現在簡單式
我們來拆解它的架構:

[A事件]
If + subject + simple present
如果 + 主語 + 現在簡單式

[B事件]
Subject + simple present
主語 + 現在簡單式

(Example)
If + the sun + rises, the night + is over

If the sun rises, the night is over.
如果太陽出來,夜晚就結束了。

第一類條件句 (Type 1 conditional sentences)

第一種條件句就可以加入一點想像的元素!「A」是「B」的起源,兩者有密切的連帶關係,但如果前面的「A」發生,後面的「B」也許會發生、也許不會發生。

典型的句子:
If you go out without a coat, you will catch a cold.
如果你不穿外套出門,你會著涼。

*句子的前段是用現在簡單式後段是用未來簡單式
我們來拆解它的架構:

[A事件]
If + subject + simple present
如果 + 主語 + 現在簡單式

[B事件]
Subject + simple future
主語 +未來簡單式

(Example)
If + you + go out without a coat, you + will catch a cold

If you go outside without a coat, you will catch a cold.
如果你不穿外套出門,你會著涼。
*也許你已經穿了保暖的衣服,或者永遠都不怕冷。

第二類條件句 (Type 2 conditional sentences)

超越了「一」以後,第二種條件句的想像的成分又更多了!句子中,一開始的「A」就是假設或者不真實的,而如果假設的「A」成立,後面的「B」也許會發生,或者不會發生。由於假設的「A」可能根本不會發生,所以「B」實現的可能性就更低了!

典型的句子:
If she had unlimited wealth, she would be the happiest person in the world.
如果她擁有無限的財富,她就會是世界上最快樂的人。

*句子的前段是用過去簡單過去式後段是用現在條件式
我們來拆解它的架構:

[A事件]
If + subject + simple past
如果 + 主語 +過去簡單式

[B事件]
Subject + present conditional (would)
主語 +現在條件式(就會)

(Example)
If + she + had unlimited wealth, she + would be the happiest person in the world.

If she had unlimited wealth, she would be the happiest person in the world.
如果她擁有無限的財富,她就會是世界上最快樂的人。
*她不太可能有無限的財富,也因此不會變成世界上最快樂的人。

第三類條件句 (Type 3 conditional sentences)

第三種條件句與「二」相同的地方是同樣是「從假設或者不真實的出發點開始」,可是它不止擴張了想像空間,也改變了描述的時間:第三種條件句中的假設的「A」在過去沒有發生,後面的「B」也就不可能成真。因為「A」與「B」都是沒有希望成真的情景,當第三種條件句出現時,目的都是用來表達後悔的心情,或者「早知如此,何必當初」的感想。

典型的句子:
If I had known the exam was extremely difficult, I would have studied harder.
如果我早知道考試這麼難,我當初就會更努力讀書。

*句子的前段是用過去完成式後段是用現在條件完成式
我們來拆解它的架構:

[A事件]
If + subject + past perfect
如果 + 主語 + 過去完成式

[B事件]
Subject + perfect conditional (would have) + past participle
主語 + 完成條件式 (當初就會) + 過去分詞

(Example)
If + I + had known + the exam was extremely difficult, I + would have + studied + harder

If I had known the exam was extremely difficult, I would have studied harder.
如果我早知道考試這麼難,我當初就會更加努力讀書。

既然第三種條件句是虛擬的情景開場,主要的子句也可以運用 “could have”,“should have”,“might have” 來代替通常會出現的 “would have”。參考以下的比較與分析:

1. could have = 當初就能
If I had known the exam was extremely difficult, I could have studied harder.
如果我早知道考試這麼難,我當初就可以更加努力讀書。
(沒有用功讀書的學生後悔自己沒有善用時間與自己的潛力。)

2. should have = 當初就應該
If I had known the exam was extremely difficult, I should have studied harder.
如果我早知道考試這麼難,我當初就應該更加努力讀書。
(沒有用功讀書的學生後悔沒有提醒自己做應該做的事。)

3. might have = 當初可能會
If I had known the exam was extremely difficult, I might have studied harder.
如果我早知道考試是非常的困難,我當初可能會更加努力讀書。
(沒有用功讀書的學生用半吊子的態度反省不讀書的行為 。)

條件句例句

可惜天公不作美

If it hadn’t rained, the field trip would have been a success.
如果當初沒有下雨,校外教學就會很成功。

If the sun had come out, the ones who went hiking could have seen a beautiful view.
如果當初太陽有出現,去爬山的人就能看到美麗的風景。

If everyone had put on more clothes during the field trip, most of the students might not have caught the flu.
如果大家在校外教學的時候穿的暖一點,大部分的學生可能就不會得流感了。

後悔沒有伸出援手

If I had known my coworker was ill, I would have called him.
如果我早知道我的同事病了,我就會打電話給他。

If I had known my coworker was having personal problems, I could have helped him.
如果我早知道我的同事是有一些私人問題,我就可以幫助他。

If we had offered our coworker a helping hand, and a shoulder to lean on at his time of need, his health might have gotten better.
如果我們提供我們的同事伸出援助之手,一個可以依靠的肩膀,在他需要的時候,他的健康狀況可能就會變得更好。

不能回頭改變的重大決定

If she hadn’t got married at eighteen, she would have gone to college.
如果她沒有在十八歲的時候結婚,她就會去讀大學。

She should have let her husband know her anxiety and fear of getting married at such a young age.
她當時應該要讓她的先生知道,她對於太早結婚的害怕與恐懼。

If she had known that people often change how they feel about their first loves as they grow older, she might not have been afraid to be alone.
如果她早知道隨著年齡的增長,人們經常改變對於自己的初戀的感覺,她當時可能就不會如此害怕孤獨。

【英文知識】學習英語條件性質句子 (Learn English – Conditions: Mixed)

Screen Shot 2015-09-06 at 12.58.23 AM

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