美式英文 vs 英式英文: Round 2 語法 (Syntax) 上篇

Hey there! Welcome back to“American English vs British English”
在 Round1 中作者告訴了各位朋友在美式與英式英文中單字與拼法的差別 (傳送門)
而這次要教大家的是在語法 (syntax) 上的差異。

1. 在美式英文中不太會使用現在完成式 (have/has +過去分詞) 而英式英文則相反,在口語上,美國人使用過去簡單式 (V+ed) 來替換現在完成式,不過英國人則會用現在完成式。
(1). 過去發生的事, 跟當前的事情有關連:
Jenny feels ill. She ate too much.  (美)
Jenny feels ill. She’s eaten too much. (英)
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I can’t find my keys. Did you see them anywhere?  (美)
I can’t find my keys. Have you seen them anywhere? (英)

(2). 在有already, just 或是 yet的句子:
A: Are they going to the show tonight? (美)
B: No. They already saw it.
A: Are they going to the show tonight? (英)
B: No. They’ve already seen it.
—————————————————————
A: Is Samantha here? (美)
B: No, she just left.
A: Is Samantha here? (英)
B: No, she has just left.
—————————————————————
A: Can I borrow your book? (美)
B: No, I didn’t read it yet.
A: Can I borrow your book? (英)
B: No, I haven’t read it yet.

2. 集合名詞 (collective noun) ex: team, government, staff, class
在美式英文中集合名詞後面一定得接單數動詞,英式英文則可使用單數或複數
My team is losing! (美)
Which team is/are losing? (英)

My family is coming over. (美)
My family is/are coming over. (英)

3. 助動詞跟語氣助動詞 (have, can, will, must, may, should etc)
(1). 在英式英語中,會在情態動詞後面加do來回答對方的問題,而美式英文則不加do。
A: Are you coming with us?
B: I might do. (英)
B: I might (美)

(2). 在英式英文使用needn’t是很常見的,而美式英文不使用needn’t而是don’t need to
They needn’t come to school today. (英)
They don’t need to come to school today. (美)

(3). 在英式英文有時候會用shall來替換will, 但美式英文已經不使用shall了
I shall be there later. (英)
I will be there later. (美)

(4). 而英式英文在問其他人意見的時候會使用shall,而美式英文使用should
Shall we ask him to come with us? (英)
Should we ask him to come with us? (美)

(5). 美式英語喜歡用助動詞 do, does, did. 而英式英文則是用have, has, had
Have you class today? (英)
Do you have class today? (美)

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*由於在語法上英美差異不少因此拆成上下兩部分,以免大家沒辦法一次全部吸收!  而下篇將於下個禮拜上傳。祝大家happy learning 🙂

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Disclaimer: 不論是美式英文還是英式英文各州/地方的口音都不太相同,光是美國大致上就分了21種口音,由於範圍過大作者無法包括所有細節差異,還請多多包涵。

Source: learn british english                           Previous: 美式英文 vs 英式英文: Round 1 單字與拼法
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美式英文 vs 英式英文: Round 3 語法 (Syntax) 下篇

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