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秒殺文法:動詞這樣用真的對嗎?容易犯錯的動態動詞大解析!

Sylvia Chu 2014 年 12 月 17 日

讓我們先來判斷這些句子是對的還是錯的呢?

  1. She has died for three years.
  2. She has been dead for three years.

讓我們來解開疑惑吧!

一、動詞大致可以這樣分類:

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今天,我們主要關注動態動詞 (dynamic verbs)

  • Ÿ   延續性動詞 (狀態動詞)表示持續的動作或行為。
  •  非延續性動詞 (瞬間動詞):表示動作發生後立即結束。

上述兩句解析:
She has died for three years.”表示她這三年來一直在發生斷氣死亡這個行為,不合乎常理。可以改成”She has died.” (她已經死了) 或 “She has been dead for three years.” (死亡狀態已經持續了三年)

圖片1

二、瞬間動詞小原則:

瞬間動詞可以搭配完成式( have+p.p ),只是不能跟「表示持續一段時間」的時間副詞 (例如:for, how long, since+片語、子句) 連用。因此,如果句子中想要連用表持續一段時間的時間副詞時,就必須將它變成狀態動詞

※     例外:瞬間動詞中,否定的完成式可以與「表示持續一段時間」的時間副詞連用。
例如:Mary hasn’t come to Taipei for 10 years. (瑪莉已有10年沒來台北了。)

三、 如何應用?透過例題培養更多語感!

例題一:你買這部車多久了?

錯誤用法:How long have you bought the car?
正確用法:How long have you had the car?
→”買”是個瞬間動詞,買車不可能一直進行”買”這個動作。

例題二:我可以借這本書一星期嗎?

錯誤用法:May I borrow the book for a week?
正確用法:May I keep the book for a week?
→借在某一個時間點就已經完成,所以要借一整個星期,用keep較為適合。

例題三:他已經感冒了一個禮拜。

錯誤用法:He has caught a cold for a week.
正確用法:He has had a cold for a week.
→感冒一個星期是一種狀態,”中”感冒是個瞬間動詞,而不是感冒過程一直中一直中一直中。

例題四:修正看看這些句子吧!

(1) I have married for 6 years. ( 我結婚六年啦。)
→I have been married for 6 years.

圖片2

(2)He has come here for five days. (他來這裡五天了。)
→He has been here for five days. / He came here five days ago.

圖片3

表格補充:(兩種動詞語意並不相同,要先確定自己想要表達什麼,再選擇使用哪一種動態動詞)

中文 瞬間動詞 狀態動詞
離開 leave be away
回來 return/come back be back
抵達 arrive be here
沈睡 fall asleep be asleep
醒來 wake up be awake
殺死 die/kill be dead
開始 begin be on
完成/結束 finish/complete/end be done/be over
使穿著 get dressed be dressed
酒醉 get drunk be drunk
受傷 get hurt be hurt
戀愛 fall in love be in love
聯絡 get in touch with be in touch with
有興趣 become interested in be interested in
走失 get lost be lost
結婚 marry/get married be married
turn on be on
turn off be off
請假 go on leave be on leave
休假 go on vacation/holiday be on vacation/holiday
拍賣 go on sale be on sale
畢業 graduate be out of school
失業/辭職 lose/quit a job be out of work
習慣於 get used to be used to
購買 buy have
感冒 catch a cold have a cold
舉辦聚會 give a party have a party
找到工作 find a job have a job
生小孩 give birth to a baby have a baby

雖然有點複雜,但掌握幾個訣竅,相信你不會再寫錯了!
(1) 依照文義判斷動詞為狀態動詞或瞬間動詞。
(2)  若有”表達持續一段時間”的時間詞彙,請多加注意,將瞬間動詞轉換為狀態副詞。

作者:Sylvia Chu

Source: 世界公民文化中心 英語資訊交流網  
Photo Source:Moritz Aust, CC Licensed

 

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